The E/O and O/E measurement utilities will be discussed in this application note. This utility is essentially an advanced de-embedding tool allowing one to remove the effects of one optical conversion device to learn the properties of the other. There are a large number of configuration choices, particularly in the four port cases, but the measurement principle is the same: use a good VNA calibration to characterize the converting pair and then de-embed the effects of a calibrated/characterized device to analyze the DUT. Signal-to-noise ratio is often a limiting uncertainty factor so it is important to carefully choose drive levels (as high as possible without being nonlinear), IF bandwidth, and averaging in order to optimize the measurements.
As more people become accustomed to technology, the demand for data throughput has increased exponentially ...
Most Recent Flipbooks
The 21st-century battlefield is evolving rapidly with advances in military systems, such as radar and electronic countermeasures (ECM) tactics.
Material measurement will become an even more important measurement to be performed on all devices that carry high-frequency signals. Characterizing the materials for their electrical loss properties
Bluetooth® Low Energy (LE) Audio products continue to evolve, offering new user experiences. This document provides the technical details of LE Audio technologies and the significant advancements that
This paper discusses methods for transferring the sensor-based calibration to the probe tip using user power calibrations and power embedding/de-embedding for broadband and banded millimeter-wave (mmW
This document explains how to use a scenario to automate testing using the Network Master Pro MT1040A and the OSA MS9740B when deploying 400ZR and helps reduce data center interconnect operation costs
This document explains use of scenarios to automate BER testing using the Network Master Pro MT1000A/MT1040A. The scenarios are used to evaluate WDM networks.
This document explains the use of scenarios to automate testing for the Layer 2 control protocols (L2CP).
This document explains the use of scenario (xCVRQuickCheck.obcfg) for the optical transceiver (XCVR) simple check using the Network Master Pro MT1000A/MT1040A.
A transformational era in military and defense is underway and has an underpinning of 5G
Learn the challenges of testing 5GNR base stations and how to test the performance outside of traditional methods.
Automotive services operate at specific angular ranges in relation to the vehicle like Mobile Network communication
5G NR has opened up many verticals enabling all-around user experience expanding into the automotive space.
In testing the cellular capability of Telematic Control Unit (TCU) it is important to test abnormal situations that may arise due to misconfigurations, bad state actors, or the current conditions resu
This application note explains the necessity of inspection testing by RF evaluation of each of the three IEEE 802.11ax-specified frequency bands (2.4, 5, and 6 GHz).
The rollout of 70 GHz–80 GHz 5G systems and the subsequent need for more E-band devices (like radar antennas) has placed greater importance on using VNAs
Manual testing is commonly used to confirm device under test (DUT) functionality, but in terms of scope it is impossible to use this test method to verify all permutations of RF parametric measurement
Automobile equipment is using cellular communications for remote diagnostic monitoring of vehicle subsystems condition, Infotainment systems, and smartphone applications
V2X communications utilize RF (Radio Frequency) technology
Today, vehicles include various complex subsystems that are controlled through a Telematic Control Unit (TCU)